Category Archives: History

We Heard Back About the Helms Press Hall of Fame

You may remember the article we posted about something called the Helms Press Hall of Fame, started by the Helms Athletic Foundation (HAF) in the 1950s.  The HAF was absorbed into the Amateur Athletic Foundation, which was renamed the LA84 Foundation a few years ago.

We wondered at the time whether the Press Hall of Fame was still a going concern, so we dropped a line to the LA84 folks a few days ago to inquire into that.  We heard back from a nice lady named Shirley Ito, who is a website manager with the foundation and she told us that, regrettably, the Press Hall of Fame is no more.  Here is the entirety of her email:

Did some searching.  We microfilmed the Helms folders and there is one for Press Hall of Fame.  There are not many pages in that file.

The LA84 Foundation (formerly Amateur Athletic Foundation) inherited the Helms collections.  The Foundation did not continue to recognize the press/journalist award.  See the attached press releases. 

It looks appears the significant years are 1950, 1952 and 1957 (releases).  The last page is First Interstate, one of Helms’ last sponsors as an athletic foundation (before AAF received the collection in the mid-1980s).  After 1957 no additional nominations or inductees were made to the Hall of Fame.

This should resolve most, if not all, of your questions. 

Best,
Shirley

So that’s that: two induction classes, and the thing is done.

Shirley did share a PDF showing the three press releases for the Press Hall of Fame, from 1950 (inception announcement); and 1952 and 1957 (induction announcements); and well as an First Interstate Bank internal document mentioning the existence of the award, which you c:

Helms Press Award Releases: PDF

After which, poof: gone.

And that solves the mystery of whither the Helms Press Hall of Fame.

What is the Helms Press Hall of Fame, and Where Is It Today?

Committee member Steve Krah, who is also a working member of the baseball media (sports writer at the Elkhart Truth, and this is his most recent article, posted today), shares with us an article that appeared in the Sporting News on January 30, 1952, about something called the Helms Press Hall of Fame.

The idea was to create a hall “to honor America’s foremost sports journalists” and was undertaken by the Helms Athletic Foundation (HAF) of Los Angeles.  According to Wikipedia:

The Helms Athletic Foundation was an athletic foundation based in Los Angeles, founded in 1936 by Bill Schroeder and Paul Helms. It put together a panel of experts to select National Champion teams and make All-America team selections in a number of college sports including football and basketball. The panel met annually to vote on a National Champion until 1982 and retroactively ranked football teams dating back to 1883 and basketball back to 1901. The Helms Foundation also operated a Hall of Fame for both college sports.

So as a foundation celebrating athletics, it made sense for them to celebrate athletes, which they did with their Halls for college football and basketball players, but they also found room to honor the sports journalists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries as well.

But here’s the thing: there doesn’t seem to be a trace of the “Helms Press Hall of Fame” anywhere on this planet anymore.  A googling of the term leads to the Wikipedia entry about the HAF itself, with a mention of its two college sports Halls of Fame, but nothing at all on the Press Hall.  There’s the National Sportscasters and Sportswriters Association of Salisbury, North Carolina who operate their own Hall of Fame, which you can see houses several legendary baseball journalists and broadcasters.  But this organization is never been affiliated with the Helms Athletic Foundation.

As it happens, the Helms college sports Halls of Fame themselves also seem to have vanished into the ether.  Neither seem to be connected with the College Football Hall of Fame in South Bend (founded in 1951, but independently of the Helms hall), or the National Collegiate Basketball Hall of Fame in Kansas City, which was birthed in 2006.

As you have certainly surmised by now, HAF itself is no more.  It was dissolved and its historical holdings were absorbed into the collection of the Amateur Athletic Foundation, which was renamed the LA84 Foundation in 2007.

If anyone out there has any idea or information how the Helms Press Hall of Fame met its demise, please share it with us so we can share it with the world.

In the meantime, we hope you enjoy this article about the very first inductees into the Helms Press Hall of Fame.

(Click on the image below for a larger view of it.)

 

Helms Press Hall of Fame Article

The First Use of the Center Field Camera on a Local Telecast Happened 57 Years Ago

SABR member James Braswell shared a brief piece that ran in the Chicago Tribune 57 years ago today:

CF Camera Tribune

This isn’t the first time a televised baseball game featured the now common shot of the plate from a camera in center field over well 400 feet away, but the 1958 tilt between the hometown Chicago Cubs and the visiting Cincinnati Redlegs is believed to be the first local game to do so. NBC, after “weeks of experimenting by engineers at [Milwaukee NBC affiliate] WTMJ-TV”, had successfully aired the first game to feature a center field camera during the previous year’s World Series.

Here is an article that ran in the Sporting News back then describing in fairly precise detail how the new camera angle worked:

CF Camera Sporting News

Thanks for the Tribune article, James!

 

Listen to a 1957 Cubs-Dodgers Game, featuring 21-Year-Old Sandy Koufax, and called by 29-Year-Old Vin Scully

I came across these recordings some years ago, having had them in my collection, and I finally got the bright idea to share them with you here.  This game took place on June 4, 1957 with the Chicago Cubs visiting the Dodgers at Brooklyn’s Ebbets Field.

I especially like this recording because Vin Scully, himself in the early stages of his own Methuselean career, is marveling at the nascent transformation of a young (and frequently wild) fireballer, name of Sandy Koufax, into the next great strikeout artist.

Granted, this is not the Hall of Fame pitcher we gush about half a century after his rarefied peak.  Koufax wasn’t even primarily a starter at this point: only 13 of his 34 appearances in 1957 were starts.  In fact, this particular start was the last of five in a row for him; Koufax wouldn’t take the mound for Dem Bums for another three weeks, and only then in a relief capacity.  By the time October rolled around, he’d ended this, his third season, at 5-4 with a rather pedestrian 3.88 ERA which, actually, he would not improve upon until 1961.  So at this point he wasn’t close to being All-World Sandy Koufax. He was more like Adequate-at-Times Sandy Koufax.

But Scully saw the potential in Koufax and marveled in this broadcast at Sandy’s newfound strikeout rate. At one point Vin goes to the stat sheet (and, I presume, his pencil and paper) to determine how many strikeouts he’d registered against how many innings he’d pitched. These days we take the reporting of K/9 rates by game broadcasters for granted, but back then, comparing strikeouts to innings pitched was revolutionary stuff. That’s totally understandable when you realize that in the entire history of the game to that point, a qualifying pitcher’s strikeouts exceeded his innings pitched only twice: both by Herb Score, and only as recently as 1955 and 1956. So you can see just how new and mind-boggling the concept was.

Koufax ended the season with 10.5 K/9, but he was not a qualifying starter. He did, however, become the second qualifying starting pitcher to exceed a strikeout per inning in 1960, when he registered 10.1 K/9.  By contrast, 14 different qualifying pitchers in 2014 exceeded 9 K/9, and this season, 23 different pitchers are on pace to do so as of today. Make your own judgments as you see fit–I merely present the facts without further comment.

This was a night game, starting at 8:00pm, and was recorded off WOKO-AM (1460) in upstate Albany.  The Dodgers’ flagship station was WMGM-AM (1050), which had had the rights to Dodgers’ radio broadcasts since 1943 when they were WHN-AM. There are commercials, too, both live-read and recorded.  Jerry Doggett takes over the mike from Vin in the 4th.  We also hear a third voice in the person of Al Heifer in between innings giving out of town scores and exhorting listeners to tip back a Schaffer and light up a Lucky.

Here are the recordings of the game, in full, broken into four parts.

Part 1 (1st to bottom of 2nd—note: Scully comes into the broadcast just after the 6:45 mark):

Part 2 (bottom of 2nd through bottom of 4th):

Part 3 (top of 5th through top of 7th):

Part 4 (bottom of 7th through end of game):

Here’s the newspaper account of the game.  Or if you prefer, here is the box score and game account located at Baseball-Reference.

Cubs-Dodgers 19570605 Story

100 Years Ago Today, They Watched Baseball Play by Play at the Bijou Theater in Evansville

Actually, I’m not sure if it was 100 years ago exactly today.  It might be 100 years ago today ± a couple of days. But I’m going to take that liberty here.

The Evansville (Ind.) Courier-Press, like many newspapers, occasionally publishes a feature article in which they recall items that ran in the papers on that day 100 years ago, 75 years ago, 50 years ago, 25 years ago, etc.  I say “papers” because they were separate newspapers on this day 100 years ago. They entered a JOA in 1938 in which they continued publishing as separate papers except as a joint edition on Sundays, before fully merging into an everyday single paper in 1988.  I don’t know whether the item in question ran in the Press or in the Courier, but I guess that doesn’t really matter.

What does matter is what was published on this day in 1915:

Knowing the great interest in the Evansville baseball team, we have decided to try the experiment of producing the out-of-town games on a new baseball board which we have leased. Today’s game will be reported play by play over a direct wire from the Wheeling ball park to the Bijou theater stage. If the additional patronage at the theater justifies the expense, all out-of-town games will be reproduced in this manner. The ball will hardly have left the pitcher’s hand in the Wheeling ball park before the life-sized baseball at the Bijou will reproduce this movement on the mimic diamond. Play by play, every movement of ball and players, will be shown almost instantaneously. Crowds are hypnotized by the fascination of the game shown on this board.

The Evansville team at the time was the River Rats, who played in the Class B Central League along with the Wheeling (W. Va.) Stogies.  It was an eight-team loop stretching from … well, Evansville to Wheeling, with six other clubs in between.  The 1915 edition of the River Rats featured four former major leaguers, none of whom had much more than a cup of joe in the bigs. (Punch Kroll had the best career among them.)

But even if the team was populated by has-beens and never-would-bes, they were still so popular in town, even as a third level club playing in a Class B league, that it was considered worth the expense by the local newspaper to set up a telegraph line and baseball board and charge admission for locals to sit inside a presumably non-air-conditioned theater in southern Indiana during the summer to take in the remote action live.

I don’t know for how long this service continued on in Evansville, but however long it did, it started 100 years ago today, and more importantly, it’s a good example of the only way ballgames at the time could be “broadcast” live to an audience, since consumer-based radio broadcasting wasn’t quite yet a thing. This falls within the purview of our mission to report on how the media cover baseball as an event, and that’s why we’ve posted here.

A Sportswriter’s Response to ABC-TV’s Wacky 60-Game MLB Schedule Idea

On Wednesday we shared the—how to put this diplomatically?—”out of the box idea” that ABC-TV, or at least its president Thomas W. Moore, offered up to Major League Baseball: cut your season to 60 games, play only on the weekends, promote the games as major television events along the lines of college and pro football, and watch the money roll in.

OK, I’m liberally paraphrasing (probably), but that was the gist of his proposal.  Mark Aubrey, who runs Baseball Nuggets, a really interesting historical baseball site composed mainly of old newspaper articles offered up “as is”, tipped us off to that one.

One might think that the tepid response to this nutty idea by network rivals CBS and NBC (who had actual major league baseball games on their airwaves while ABC did not), as well as by then-Commissioner Ford Frick, would have been pretty much the extent of the response.  I mean, come on: who was going to take this idea seriously?

Francis Stann. That’s who.

A sports columnist for the Washington Evening Star, a major DC daily that published until 1981, Stann took the proposal seriously enough to fashion a response that could best be described as “indignant”. Because when you spell out the word you use to describe the nature of an obviously ridiculous and unworkable proposal as “G-R-E-E-D”, you’re undoubtedly steeped in indignation in a deep way.  If he’d’ve written this article two decades on, he might have been advised thusly: “Lighten up, Francis.” That said, it is an entertaining read, which we present to you below.

For more articles related to this, including a happy ending article in which ABC-TV is awarded the rights to baseball broadcasts for a cool $12 million over two seasons starting in 1965, check out the rest of Mark’s article over at Baseball Nuggets.

Stann Article

ABC-TV Once Suggested that Major League Baseball Reduce Their Regular Season Schedule to 60 Games!

Rob Manfred, the rookie Commissioner of Baseball, stoked increased discussion about MLB reducing its regular season this past February. You yourself have probably had discussions with other fans about this many times over the years, so you likely know that a lot of people who consider themselves big fans of the game nevertheless wouldn’t mind seeing less of it. Proponents of shortening the schedule usually maintain that 162 games is just way too many to play in a season and argue that the season goes too late in the year, topping it off with the horrific vision of a November World Series game getting snowed out.

The weather point starts to frost up a bit when you consider that in cities where playing in cold weather is an issue, early November runs anywhere from one to five degrees warmer on average than early April, as well as drier. No matter: the weather argument has a lot of traction in the debate, and occupies a trump card in proponents’ hand at the moment.  A better, recently proffered argument is that players would benefit from a season of fewer games to help preserve their health and perhaps lengthen their careers.

There is some general merit to the latter point, although the funniest thing to me about this debate is that the number of games most advocates invariably choose to reduce the season to is 154.  The difference between 162 and 154 is not all that great, less than 5% of games, so would a season of 154 games provide all that much more relief to an everyday player than one of 162?  That seems a somewhat dubious proposition.  So why is 154 always the magic number in these debates?  Why not 144, or 140, or 134? Might it be that nostalgia plays a significant role in the advocacy of the 154 solution? I might place a bet on that, if one were available.

Nothing nostalgic about a solution that ABC television came up with over a half century ago to reduce the season, though.  They didn’t suggest 154, or 144, or anything as incremental as that. Their suggestion: play a 60-game season, on weekends only, and promote it the way that football is promoted, as a major television event.

This idea brought chuckles of disbelief from their rivals at CBS and NBC and the kind of dismissals reserved for the crazy political ideas that one uncle of yours evangelizes at every Thanksgiving dinner. Commissioner-at-the-time Ford Frick was reportedly equally unimpressed, the article stating flatly that “the public is satisfied with the way things are now, and he is too.”

Undaunted, ABC did not stop there with the out-of-the-box ideas. They believed other sports could benefit from dramatic changes, too, such as professional golfers competing with each other on a season-long points system administered by the PGA; the USOC holding regional Olympic competitions to better prepare the nation for the actual quadrennial event; and college football doing away with the bowl system and replacing it with a March Madness-style playoff instead.  As you can see, not all their ideas were total clunkers.

The original article, published in the wonderfully alliterative Rockford Register-Republic in April 1964, is reprinted below.  Hat tip to Mark Aubrey, who featured this in a post on his own blog located here.

 

ABC-60games

New Biography: Ned Martin

Committee member Bob LeMoine has just penned a new biography of Ned Martin, the legendary Red Sox broadcaster who called the games for the club from 1961 through 1992 on both radio (WHDH; WMEX/WITS) and television (WHDH-TV, WSBK-TV, NESN).  Martin called many of the Crimson Hose’s signature moments, including Carlton Fisk’s Game 6 walk-off home run in the 1975 World Series; Roger Clemens’ 20-strikeout game in 1986; and the entire “Impossible Dream” season of 1967.

We have posted the biography on our site here:

Ned Martin

The biography also appears in the newly published SABR book, “’75: The Red Sox Team that Saved Baseball“, which is available for free download for all SABR members, or for purchase by generous members (in paperback) and non-members alike (download or paperback).

Here is a brief excerpt from LeMoine’s biography:


“Oh, Gertrude, when sorrows come they come not as single spies but in battalions.”

Hamlet, Act 4, Scene 5, a favorite quote of Ned Martin
when the Red Sox were having a particularly bad day.

“With this back and these knees? Mercy,” Ned Martin asked rhetorically, using his trademark exclamation when asked if he was going to dance the jitterbug at his 50th high-school reunion. Still, he and his classmates of the Upper Merion High School in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, Class of 1940, danced to the Big Band tunes of Artie Shaw, Benny Goodman, and Harry James. Martin also reflected on his English teacher and his “old country school.” “Marie Wolfskill. Just an excellent English teacher in a little country school. … What a major role that woman played in my life. … it was largely because of her teaching I’ve been able to make my living through my use of the English language; it was because of her I developed a love for that language.”

Ned Martin could be called the Shakespeare of the broadcast booth, or baseball’s Hemingway scholar-in-residence. He could inject a broadcast at the right moment with literary quotes, poems, or song lyrics, while his catchphrase of “Mercy!” summed up many moments of Red Sox history. Red Sox radio announcer Joe Castiglione called Martin “the most literate of all broadcasters … a scholar of literature and a great Hemingway expert. He had a way of describing things very succinctly, honestly, and openly. He never interfered with an event.” Dave Weekley of the Charleston (West Virginia) Gazette recalled Martin’s “low-key quiet confidence … His delivery was easy on the ears and his renowned wit allowed him to refer to his beloved Shakespeare when the time was right.” Curt Gowdy called Martin “a highly intelligent guy with a great vocabulary and a good voice.”

A Red Sox announcer for 32 years, Martin also served his country in World War II, celebrating victory at Iwo Jima. But he was most at home behind the radio microphone, where his mastery of language painted pictures in the minds of his listeners. “Active verbs are really helpful. It isn’t an awful thing to have a vocabulary and use it,” Martin remarked.

Those active verbs could be a ball “caroming” off the wall or “lofted” over it; a lead was “tenuous,” and fans “vociferous.” Home runs were “long gone and hard to find.” The aging Gaylord Perry was called “sparsely thatched” on top. He would greet fans during a West Coast game with “Hello, wherever you may be at this ungodly hour,” or sum up a poor Red Sox performance with “‘It was death in the afternoon,’ as Hemingway would have said.” Martin’s rich usage of literature gave us calls like “So the little children shall lead them as rookies Rice and Lynn have driven in all of the Red Sox runs,” and it is often his descriptions Red Sox fans remember when reliving moments of Red Sox history from the 1960s through the early 1990s.

(Continue reading here.)

Cubs/White Sox Play First MLB Game on WGN-TV in 1948

This column first appeared on the blog All Funked Up, which is operated by David Funk, who describes himself as “a life-long sports fan [who] also [works] and travels for a living … or fun sometimes.” Sounds like a pretty good life, right?

David wrote the column below, and gave us permission to reprint it here.  The original column was posted here.

Enjoy!


 

CUBS/WHITE SOX PLAY FIRST MLB GAME ON WGN-TV IN 1948

On April 16, 1948, the very first MLB game on WGN-TV is played.  It was on this day that the Chicago Cubs hosted their crosstown rival Chicago White Sox in an exhibition game on WGN-TV at Wrigley Field.  It was the first sporting event held on the network as well.

The first ever MLB game to broadcast on television took place in August 1939 at Ebbets Field between the Brooklyn Dodgers and Cincinnati Reds as Red Barber called that game.  It was aired on W2XBS which was the same station that carried the first ever baseball game as Princeton played against Columbia in a collegiate match-up.

By the time the 1940s came around and World War II was over, television sets were selling as fast as they could be made.

In 1947, television attracted a new audience of baseball fans as they flocked to games in record numbers.  The casual baseball fans were the ones that began going to games due to television exposure.  That year, attendance at Major League Baseball games reached a record high of over 21 million fans.

The 1947 World Series between the New York Yankees and Brooklyn Dodgers had an estimated 3.9 million viewers.  The Yankees won the series 4-3 over the Dodgers in what was also the first integrated team to play in the World Series with Jackie Robinson’s playing in his first Fall Classic.

Television had changed America and most baseball teams were getting on board by broadcasting televised games at the end of the decade.

In February 1948, WGN-TV(run by Jake Israel) began running text broadcasts before their first ever regular broadcast on April 5, 1948 with the WGN-TV Salute to Chicago two-hour special.  Originally, the station had affiliations with CBS and DuMont Television Network sharing with WBKB on Channel 4.  After CBS purchased a license to operate shows on Channel 4 in 1953, DuMont was left with Channel 9 and WGN-TV would be one of it’s best networks.  Originally, WGN-TV operated from the Tribune Tower in downtown Chicago before moving to North Bradley Place in the North Center neighborhood of the city in 1961.

After seeing the success of the 1947 World Series and the station launching just in time for baseball season, WGN-TV decided to air an exhibition game between the city’s two teams.  So eleven days after the station’s first broadcast, a baseball game was aired on its television network for the first time ever.

The first game on the television network was called by the legendary Jack Brickhouse, who would call baseball games for the station for the next 33 years.

The Cubs’ starting pitcher was Hank Borowy against White Sox starter Joe Haynes.

A little over 9,200 fans withstood chilly 45-degree temperatures to watch the game.  This was the fourth exhibition game between them that year as the Cubs won two of the first three.  It was the White Sox who would get the better of the “North Siders” at Wrigley Field on this day to even the series between them that year.

In the top half of the first inning, Borowy could hardly throw a strike and walked four White Sox batters.  An error by Cubs second baseman Henry Schenz also contributed to the White Sox taking advantage by scoring three runs in the opening inning.

Those three runs were all that Haynes needed for the White Sox as he pitched six innings for the “South Siders”.  He along with reliever Earl Harrist allowed five Cub hits and one run in the game.

Borowy would pitch seven innings and allowed four of the five White Sox hits in the game.  But it was his wildness in the first inning that allowed the White Sox an early lead and eventual 4-1 win over the Cubs.

The Cubs would finish the 1948 season in last place with a 64-90 record.  The White Sox were even worse finishing dead last with a 51-101 record that year.

Beginning in 1948, WGN-TV would broadcast all Cubs and White Sox home games.  In 1952, WGN-TV gained exclusive rights to broadcast Cubs games.  Brickhouse would call games for both Chicago teams until 1967.

Brickhouse’s legendary status reached beyond calling games on WGN-TV and it was said by his wife that he always felt more comfortable announcing baseball at Wrigley Field.  He was the Chicago Bears radio broadcaster in 1953 and first ever announcer for the Chicago Bulls in 1966.  He called five Major League Baseball All-Star Games and four World Series.  He also called the famous boxing match in 1949 between Jersey Joe Walcott and Ezzard Charles, and the 1952 Rose Bowl with fellow legend Mel Allen.

His best known expression was saying “Hey-Hey!” after a big play for the home team.  He famously said that line when Cubs Hall of Fame player Ernie Banks hit his 500th career home run in 1970.

In 1981, Brickhouse retired and the Cubs’ replacement was another broadcasting legend by the name of Harry Caray.  Caray, who called games for the St. Louis Cardinals and White Sox(on WSNS-TV) previously, came over at the right time as WGN-TV was nationally broadcasting games then.

Caray’s style was different from Brickhouse, but the Cubs’ games on the network continued to draw well.  His most famous line was “Holy Cow!” after a big play from the Cubs.  Caray’s singing of “Take Me Out to the Ball Game” during the seventh inning stretch began on White Sox broadcasts and carried over to the Cubs on WGN-TV.  Special guests would take part in the singing and it’s a tradition which has continued since his death in 1998.

As for the White Sox, the WGN-TV broadcast team would consist of former big league players Ken Harrelson and Tom Paciorek beginning in 1990 until 1999.  These days, Harrelson is joined in the booth by former AL Cy Young award winner Steve Stone, who was once part of the Cubs broadcast team on the network.  They’ve been together as a broadcast team since 2009.

WGN-TV also began broadcasting games for the Bulls as well as Blackhawks.  However, due to affiliation contracts, they are limited to the amount of games shown for all Chicago teams.

In 2013, the Cubs terminated an existing deal with WGN that was set to expire in 2022.  However, a new deal was reached in January 2015 that will allow 45 games to be shown in the Chicago market only.  All other remaining Cubs games would be aired on Comcast SportsNet Chicago and WLS-TV.  The deal expires after the 2019 season.

These days, the station is referred to as WGN America to satellite and cable providers throughout the U.S. and Canada.

This day in 1948 marked the beginning of not only baseball to be broadcast on WGN-TV, but all of its sports.  During a time when television gripped America, it was WGN-TV that took advantage of that by bringing Cubs and White Sox games to the network. Legendary broadcasters such as Jack Brickhouse and Harry Caray contributed heavily to Major League Baseball as well as WGN to make the network what it is today.

“Chicago’s Very Own” WGN network is a pioneering super-station that has left a lasting impression on television as well as Major League Baseball and other sports.

Visionary 1971 Article about the Future of Sports on Cable TV

Committee member Philip Hochberg, public announcer extraordinaire who worked the games for the Washington Senators from 1962 until they high-tailed out of town for Texas after the 1970 season, was also a prescient journalist in his spare time.  “Prescient”, I say, because as far back as 1971, he saw the cables sports revolution on the horizon, and penned this piece below for the Sporting News’ July 3 edition that year.

This was eight years before the Entertainment Sports and Programming Network signed on, and several more years than that before regional sports networks became the norm for the broadcasting of professional sports. You can tell it was a long time ago because Hochberg notes that cable is booming because there are already “nearly five million persons [being] served by [cable].”  At the time, that made only about 2.5% of all Americans.  Today, about 89% of all American households are served by either cable or other “alternate delivery systems” such as satellite.

Much of the article delves into how the FCC was attempting to wrestle with how to regulate the infant cable TV industry from poaching activity, in order to protect over-the-air broadcasters of marquee events, such as the World Series, that had traditionally run free over the air.  We also learn how the desire of small-city cable TV operators to run professional sports programming, especially major league baseball, influenced them to choose to air distant big city TV stations over local stations that presumably aired the same national networks.

One of the best fun facts I learned from reading this article is that in 1971, TelePrompTer Corporation, having divested itself of its actual teleprompter business, was the largest cable TV operator in the country.  TelePrompTer later sold out to Westinghouse broadcasting, and their cable holding was renamed Group W Cable.

Fascinating stuff. Click on the article below to open up in a new tab or window for easier reading.

 

Cable TV Offers Expanded Medium for Sports Sporting News 1971